Conformational heterogeneity of the BTK PHTH domain drives multiple regulatory states.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Elife, Volume 12 (2024)


Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Dimerization, Phosphorylation, Protein Domains


<p>Full-length Bruton&#39;s tyrosine kinase (BTK) has been refractory to structural analysis. The nearest full-length structure of BTK to date consists of the autoinhibited SH3-SH2-kinase core. Precisely how the BTK N-terminal domains (the Pleckstrin homology/Tec homology [PHTH] domain and proline-rich regions [PRR] contain linker) contribute to BTK regulation remains unclear. We have produced crystals of full-length BTK for the first time but despite efforts to stabilize the autoinhibited state, the diffraction data still reveal only the SH3-SH2-kinase core with no electron density visible for the PHTH-PRR segment. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) data of full-length BTK, on the other hand, provide the first view of the PHTH domain within full-length BTK. CryoEM reconstructions support conformational heterogeneity in the PHTH-PRR region wherein the globular PHTH domain adopts a range of states arrayed around the autoinhibited SH3-SH2-kinase core. On the way to activation, disassembly of the SH3-SH2-kinase core opens a new autoinhibitory site on the kinase domain for PHTH domain binding that is ultimately released upon interaction of PHTH with phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Membrane-induced dimerization activates BTK and we present here a crystal structure of an activation loop swapped BTK kinase domain dimer that likely represents the conformational state leading to trans-autophosphorylation. Together, these data provide the first structural elucidation of full-length BTK and allow a deeper understanding of allosteric control over the BTK kinase domain during distinct stages of activation.</p>

8S93, 8GMB, 8S9F