Molecular basis of the pleiotropic effects by the antibiotic amikacin on the ribosome.
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Nat Commun, Volume 14, Issue 1, p.4666 (2023)
Keywords:Amikacin, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Kanamycin, Models, Molecular, Ribosomes, RNA, Transfer
<p>Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that bind to ribosomal RNA and exert pleiotropic effects on ribosome function. Amikacin, the semisynthetic derivative of kanamycin, is commonly used for treating severe infections with multidrug-resistant, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Amikacin carries the 4-amino-2-hydroxy butyrate (AHB) moiety at the N amino group of the central 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) ring, which may confer amikacin a unique ribosome inhibition profile. Here we use in vitro fast kinetics combined with X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM to dissect the mechanisms of ribosome inhibition by amikacin and the parent compound, kanamycin. Amikacin interferes with tRNA translocation, release factor-mediated peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, and ribosome recycling, traits attributed to the additional interactions amikacin makes with the decoding center. The binding site in the large ribosomal subunit proximal to the 3'-end of tRNA in the peptidyl (P) site lays the groundwork for rational design of amikacin derivatives with improved antibacterial properties.</p>